Describe EACH of the five research approaches (narrative, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, case study) and write an appropriate research question for each approach

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Qualitative Approach Methodology
Briefly describe EACH of the five research approaches (narrative, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, case study) and write an appropriate research question for each approach.
Research approaches broadly fall under qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods methodologies (Hennink, Hutter & Bailey, 2020).
Narrative is a qualitative research approach that focuses on the storytelling aspect of individuals’ lived experiences (Hammarberg, Kirkman & de Lacey, 2016). For example, a research question for a narrative approach could be: How do police officers narrate their experiences with racial profiling during traffic stops?
Phenomenology is a qualitative approach that explores individuals’ subjective experiences and perceptions of a particular phenomenon (Hennink, Hutter & Bailey, 2020). A research question for phenomenology could be: How do people with chronic pain describe their experience of managing daily activities?
Grounded theory is a qualitative approach that aims to generate new theories from data collected through interviews or observations (Hammarberg, Kirkman & de Lacey, 2016). This approach is majorly inductive, meaning the theory emerges from the data. An example research question using grounded theory could be: What factors influence student success in a community college setting?
Ethnography is a qualitative approach that involves immersing oneself in a culture or community to understand their beliefs and behaviors (Hennink, Hutter & Bailey, 2020). It can be applied in various settings, including organizational or educational settings. An example research question for ethnography could be: How do team dynamics and communication patterns impact the success of a project in a technology startup company?
A case study is a qualitative approach that involves an in-depth examination of a specific case or instance (Hammarberg, Kirkman & de Lacey, 2016). It can be within one individual, group, organization, community, or event. A research question for a case study could be: How does a school’s implementation of restorative justice practices impact student behavior and classroom climate?
Identify the qualitative (or mixed methods) approach you selected that is most suitable to address YOUR research question/s.
The research approach that aligns best with my research questions on the underrepresentation of women in top management positions is a case study approach. This could involve conducting in-depth interviews and observations at organizations with varying levels of gender diversity in leadership roles to understand the specific factors contributing to this discrepancy. The case study is the ideal approach because it allows for an in-depth examination of each organization’s unique experiences and factors. Therefore, I look forward to using a case study approach to delve deeper into my research question and potentially generate new insights on this topic.
List your research question/s and explain your rationale for this choice.
Research question: Why is there a continued underrepresentation of women in top management positions, despite increasing female representation at lower management levels? What factors contribute to this discrepancy?
The rationale for choosing this research question is that gender discrimination, especially in the workplace, is a pressing issue that needs further exploration and understanding. Potential solutions and improvements can be identified and implemented by studying the factors contributing to the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions. Additionally, analyzing this topic through a case study approach allows for a nuanced examination of each organization’s unique experiences and factors influencing gender discrimination.
References
Creswell, J. W. (2018). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five
approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. (4th ed.).
Brinkmann, S. & Kvale, S. (2018). Doing interviews. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE. (2nd ed.).
Hammarberg, K., Kirkman, M., & de Lacey, S. (2016). Qualitative research methods: when to use them and how to judge them. Human reproduction, 31(3), 498-501.
Hennink, M., Hutter, I., & Bailey, A. (2020). Qualitative research methods. Sage.
Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B., & Blanco, G., (2022). Designing qualitative research (7th ed.)
Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE

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