Explain and discuss key debates, theories and current research in international development,

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P‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍lease use at lest 4 quotes from the book only don’t get it from anywhere ales . Do not use a quotes that the book has quote it from other books or sources. Use Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 book block 2 that I have attached. Make it at least 5 paragraphs make suer about word count which is 1500 word no more or lase in part one. Use Harvard referencing. Preparation for TMA 04 Cut-off date: 09 March 2022 This TMA covers module materials associated with Block 4. This assignment has one question. You should submit your completed assignment to arrive no later than 12 noon (UK local time) on the cut-off date of 9 March 2022. Learning outcomes This TMA is designed to assess the following module learning outcomes. Please bear this in mind when you prepare and write your answers. 1. Explain and discuss key debates, theories and current research in international development, including conflicting meanings of the concept of ‘development’. 2. Explain the complex interactions among political, economic and social actors across the international system that impact on development. 6. Demonstrate an understanding of key aspects of development: emerging powers; inequality and livelihoods; security and vulnerability; technology, energy and climate change. 11. Construct and communicate, effectively and fluently, arguments using clear conceptual frameworks and integrating both quantitative and qualitative evidence where appropriate. 12. Apply knowledge and understanding of international and development issues to problem solving within professional practice, including informing policy debates and report writing. Additional learning outcomes 3. Evaluate the impact of historical contexts on the development of countries and the international order. 4. Assess the role of power and agency in development, including shifting balances of power between and within countries and between other actors. 5. Analyse development processes at different scales; local, national, regional and international. Question 1 Making use of the article ‘From horror to health,: How Rwanda rebuilt itself to become one of Africa’s brightest stars’ (Daily Telegraph), and the BBC Rwanda country profile, write an essay of up to 1500 words that critically evaluates the path that Rwanda is taking in the development of its human security. Daily Telegrapgh article – From horror to health: How Rwanda rebuilt itself to become one of Africa’s brightest stars BBC News article – Rwanda country profile You are required to use at least two elements from PASH in your answer. The word limit for your answer is 1500 words. Answers in excess of this word limit may lose marks: see the TD223 Assessment Guide and below for more information. Your reference list at the end of your essay is not included in the overall word count, although in-text citations are included. (100 marks) Student notes This question is asking you to bring together your understanding of key concepts from Block 4, and you will also need to include at least two of the PASH framework’s elements. Power and agency may be treated as two separate PASH elements if you wish to focus on these two, but if you focus on these two alone, you must clearly show that you understand the differences in meaning and applicability of ‘power’ and ‘agency’. You will need to use evidence sources from the OU materials and, as always, a key consideration will be to incorporate enough different examples to support and critique different relevant debates. Keep in mind, though, that including too many examples/debates could hinder your ability, within the constraints of the word limit, to effectively evaluate the evidence and show your understanding well. You are required to make some use of the specified source, the piece entitled How Rwanda rebuilt itself to become one of Africa’s brightest stars’ (Telegraph), and the BBC Rwanda country profile which has information about the context and the outcome of the crisis known as the Rwandan Genocide (1994) which devastated Rwanda at all levels.’ Exactly how you use the material from the newspaper article is up to you, but be sure not to try to incorporate too much from it – it is not a requirement to summarise it. The article is intended to provide some useful and relevant evidence that will enable you to tackle the TMA question and show your understanding of Block 4 teaching by relating some of this evidence to the concepts, theories and debates you’ve learned about regarding human security and insecurity and development. When you come to write this TMA, there may have been further advances in Rwanda’s development, however it is not a requirement of the TMA to bring in more recent evidence or discussion about this: you can, but, as with all your choices of approach and material used, bear in mind the following: • Remember that just giving descriptive accounts of this material, other examples, evidence sources, or discussions that simply reproduce the views of the authors in such sources, are unlikely to gain many marks. • You may find it difficult to separate your own personal views on the examples and evidence from your module work on this topic. However, if you find your personal views dominating your thinking, try to reflect on this and make notes in your notebook, as this will be useful for when you come to Block 6. For TMA 04 you should only let personal op‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍inions shape your answer to the extent that they can be linked to the academic debates and concepts you have learned about, and in relation to your chosen evidence sources, to present effectively and objectively evaluated positions. At the heart of this TMA are debates about insecurity, and about development actors’ roles in contexts of development after insecurity and crisis. As you’ve learned from Block 4, the meaning and implications of almost all areas of security and insecurity are also contested, as is their relationship to development, with related debates about needs, appropriateness, timing and the nature of aid and/or other interventions or international action. You might wish to start your planning of your answer by breaking the question into the three elements: • Central to your answer will be the concepts of and debates about security, insecurity, and vulnerability, as well as relating to both human security and state security. However, it is also important to give attention to evaluating the concepts of and debates about security and insecurity that are key to the whole of Block 4. Good foundational discussions of the concepts can be found in Joe Hanlon’s other chapter in the block (Chapter 1 in Book 2), as well as in Aradau’s chapter (4). To evaluate the past, present and future situation in Rwanda, you should consider different ways of conceptualising debates about security, insecurity, and the relationship they have with development. You should do this by illustrating their potential application to the given news source and/or other examples. For example, Hanlon (Chapter 1) discusses Frances Stewart’s argument about inter-group inequalities, and the concept of and debates about human security is also discussed in this chapter. William Brown’s chapter (2) looks at war (including civil war) as well as debates about the causes and consequences of conflict, while Aradau (see Chapter 4 and also Week 3 of Block 4 online) looks particularly at debates and evidence about the relationship between security and development. Mark Smith’s work (see, for example the video material in Block 4 Week 4 on the Thai political conflict, and other material there and in Chapter 5) looks at insecurity, vulnerability and risk which have relevance to both contexts of insecurity, and the role of aid and intervention. Other Block 4 online materials also provide relevant material. These suggestions are here to encourage you to look at a broader scope of module material – you are not expected to incorporate all of them, nor should you try. The key, as in any written work, is to be sure you only answer the set question. Be sufficiently selective, but also illustrate relevant module learning from different perspectives. • You are required to use elements of the PASH framework, so this should be the second thing to consider. The situation post-genocide in Rwanda and within the ‘Great Lakes’ region of Africa, as indeed other contexts you may consider, poses prominent questions about power, agency, scale and history. You are required to answer the question with reference to at least two PASH elements. The choice is up to you, but keep in mind that you are asked to ‘critically evaluate’ the argument. Power and/or agency are perhaps the most likely to directly lead you to evaluate ‘critically’; the history of Rwanda and the interventions or lack of them by international actors pre, during and post genocide can certainly be useful for this too, though be careful to avoid simply describing historical material. If you choose more than two PASH elements that’s fine, but as always, it will depend on your approach and argument, and using more than two doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll have space to strengthen your discussion as a whole. Finally with regard to PASH, don’t forget that if you use only power and agency (which are often discussed together in the module), then you must be sure to demonstrate the differences between the meanings and relevance of each of them. • While you will need to be selective in view of the word limit, making references to material from previous blocks, if done well, could help your answer. By doing so you are fostering your skill in making linkages. This skill will be useful during your TD223 exam. Linkages could be made to approaches of development (Block 1), the theories of international relations such as relating to debates about state security and motives for their relationships and actions, or about mobilities (Block 2). In Block 3 there were also useful debates on the role of aid, as in the audio by Brown, Fukuda-Parr and Hanlon (Block 3, Week 5). However, be careful not to try to incorporate too much breadth: the main source of your discussions will still be Block 4 material, and at least some evidence from the piece on Rwanda’s development. Remember then that the process words are critically evaluate. Therefore, you need to critically weigh up arguments about the nature and causes of insecurity, and the role and impact of both internal and external actors in gaining sustainable human security. You will need to try to apply relevant debates and concepts you’ve learned about to the evidence you are considering, and to look at counter-arguments too. Evaluation is often seen as being critical in a negative way but it can be negative, positive, ambivalent et‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍c. Positive appraisal, if supported by evidence, is as valuable as negative criticism

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