Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET)

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P‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍lease from these 4 readings that I uploaded write1 questions about each article, please write long questions not short questions it must be more that three sentence like these question ( these examples) Q1 The authors note that the often best policy monopoly positions are connected to core political values, with the best being, “…such things as progress, participation, patriotism, independence from foreign domination, fairness, economic growth—things no one taken seriously in the political system can contest,” (6). How would the authors respond to policy areas in which one of these attributes is counter to another? For example, an institution in which ‘patriotism’ and ‘fairness’ do not coincide? Are these monopoly positions mutually-exclusive, or can ‘core political values’ able to be stacked upon one another to create a more appealing policy position for whatever interest is involved? Q2 Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET) is founded on the central premise that policymaking in the United States is not always stable and incremental; the authors suggest that long periods of stability‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍ are punctuated by episodic changes. According to my observations, the PET has dominated the research of agenda setting by concentrating on the mechanisms and processes that are involved in agenda setting. What do you think? Do we agree with these assumptions, or do you think this framework is still dominated by concepts like power and conflict dynamics that we examined in our previous theoretical reading? Q3 Based on the authors’ definition of policy monopolies, do the two important characteristics reflect the actions of policy makers in American society? Does his approach of induced equilibrium work in every sector of policy agenda? Jones, Bryan D. 2003. Bounded Rationality and Political Science. Journal of Public Administration Theory 13: 395-412. Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo. 2005. The Origin of Bursts and Heavy Tails in Human Dynamics. Nature 435: 207–11. Tversky, Amos and Daniel Kahneman. 2013. Thinking Fast and Slow. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. Soga, M., & Gaston, K. J. 2018. Shifting baseline syndrome: Causes, consequences, and implications. Frontiers in Ecology and the Env‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍ironment, 16(4), 222–230.

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