Using the iceberg analogy, which personality structure(s) lies completely below the water?

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Answer these practice exam questions
1. Freud believed that personality consists of _____ structures, and they are called _____.
a. 3; self-concept, self-esteem, and self-efficacy
b. 5; neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
c. 5; oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
d. 3; unconscious, preconscious, and conscious
e. 3; id, ego, and superego
2. Using the iceberg analogy, which personality structure(s) lies completely below the water?
a. superego and ego
b. ego and id
c. superego and id
d. superego only
e. id only
3. Frank says, “My conscience is bothering me.” Using Freud’s terminology, Frank is referring to his
a. superego.
b. ego.
c. id.
d. conscious.
e. unconscious.
4. From a psychoanalytic perspective, someone with a very strong sense of morality might be described as having a very strong
a. id.
b. superego.
c. ego.
d. preconscious.
e. conscious.
5. Which part of the personality might be described as “the great compromiser”?
a. self-concept
b. self-esteem
c. superego
d. ego
e. id
6. Regression is
a. keeping unacceptable thoughts from awareness.
b. refusing to recognize a threatening thought.
c. the use of self-justifications to explain unacceptable behavior.
d. the return of behavior that is typical of earlier stages of development.
e. channeling unacceptable impulses into acceptable behaviors.
7. Imposing one’s own impulses or wishes onto another is called
a. projection.
b. sublimation.
c. displacement.
d. rationalization.
e. reaction formation.
8. According to Freud, the human mind develops in which of the following sequences?
a. id, ego, superego
b. superego, ego, id
c. ego, id, superego
d. superego, id, ego
9. Psychologist Dr. James works in a field of psychology that studies the interrelationships between psychology and physical health. What is Dr. James’s specialty?
a. clinical psychology
b. health psychology
c. psychiatry
d. developmental psychology
e. environmental psychology
10. Which of the following definitions best describes distress?
a. a state of physical or mental pain or suffering
b. annoyances of daily life that impose a stressful burden
c. continuing or lingering sources of stress
d. pressure or demand placed on an organism to adjust or adapt to environmental demands
e. a state of tension brought about by opposing motives operating simultaneously
11. In psychology, stress is generally defined as:
a. Environmental pressures that exceed the organism’s ability to adjust.
b. Pressures or demands placed on an organism to adjust or adapt to its environment.
c. A state of tension brought about by conflicting demands.
d. Distress caused by excessive demands.
e. A state of tension created by environmental pressures.
12. Pressures or demands placed on an organism to adjust or adapt to its environment describes
a. stress.
b. sublimation.
c. anxiety.
d. disease.
e. conflict.
13. As defined in the text in the discussion of stress, the term “stressors” is best described as
a. effects of stress.
b. various types of stress.
c. sources of stress.
d. sources of conflicts.
e. types of conflicts.
14. Persistent or continuing stress is best described as
a. neurotic.
b. anxiety-inducing.
c. depressing.
d. annoying.
e. chronic.
15. Major changes in life circumstances are called
a. hassles.
b. chronic stressors.
c. life markers.
d. life events.
e. unresolved conflicts.
16. Which type of conflict is generally considered the least stressful?
a. approach-avoidance
b. avoidance-avoidance
c. approach-approach
d. multiple approach-avoidance
e. multiple approach-approach
17. A psychological disorder characterized by maladaptive reactions to traumatic events or stressors is
a. post-traumatic stress disorder.
b. generalized anxiety disorder.
c. antisocial personality disorder.
d. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
e. dissociative identity disorder.
18. People with Type A behavior are at greater risk of developing
a. depression.
b. generalized anxiety disorder.
c. diabetes.
d. coronary heart disease.
e. bipolar personality disorder.
19. The fight-or-flight response occurs during which stage of the GAS?
a. resistance
b. alarm
c. exhaustion
d. alert
e. adaptation
20. Approximately what percentage of American adults has a diagnosable psychological disorder at some point in their life?
a. 20%
b. 35%
c. 50%
d. 60%
e. 75%
21. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) uses the term _____ to describe abnormal patterns of behavior.
a. mental illness
b. mental disorder
c. psychological disorder
d. psychological illness
e. personality disorder
22. Nagging, intrusive thoughts are called ______, and repetitive or ritual behaviors are called ______.
a. diatheses; delusions
b. compulsions; obsessions
c. obsessions; compulsions
d. diatheses; conversions
e. conversions; diatheses
23. Individuals with antisocial personality disorder demonstrate all of the following except
a. disregard for rules of society.
b. psychotic behavior.
c. lack of remorse for misdeeds.
d. impulsivity.
e. irresponsible behavior.
24. Perceptions are to ____ as beliefs are to ____.
a. anxiety; depression
b. delusions; hallucinations
c. compulsions; obsessions
d. obsessions; compulsions
e. hallucinations; delusions
25. How do delusions differ from hallucinations?
a. Delusions involve false beliefs while hallucinations involve false perceptions.
b. Delusions are unusual for schizophrenics to experience while hallucinations are common.
c. Delusions tend to focus on persecution while hallucinations tend to focus on feelings of unrealistic power or importance.
d. Delusions typically involve hearing voices while hallucinations typically involve elaborate and illogical scenarios.
26. As you wait for a bus, you notice a naked man casually walking down the sidewalk. This behavior is not acceptable and therefore is abnormal based upon the ____ definition of abnormal behavior.
a. maladaptive behavior
b. destructiveness
c. deviation from social norms
d. statistical frequency
27.Which of the following is not one of the criteria used by psychologists to determine whether a behavior is abnormal?
a. Morality
b. Social deviance
c. Dangerousness
d. Unusualness
e. Emotional distress
28. George was committed to a psychiatric hospital after he was caught happily shopping at the local supermarket without any clothes on. By what criterion is George’s behavior considered abnormal?
a. Dangerousness
b. Maladaptive behavior
c. Social deviance
d. Emotional distress
e. Faulty perceptions or interpretations of reality
29. Felicia reports that she is hearing voices that continually demean and belittle her. By what criterion is her behavior considered abnormal?
a. Dangerousness
b. Maladaptive behavior
c. Social deviance
d. Emotional distress
e. Faulty perceptions or interpretations of reality
30. Jurgen has been diagnosed as having a phobia. This means that Jurgen experiences
a. sudden episodes of sheer terror with no apparent cause.
b. persistent anxiety without a specific focus.
c. nagging, intrusive thoughts.
d. an irrational or excessive fear of something.
e. a loss of a physical function that defies explanation.
31. Persistent anxiety that is not tied to any particular object or situation is called
a. generalized anxiety disorder.
b. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
c. agoraphobia.
d. social anxiety disorder.
e. panic disorder.
32. Edwina is constantly worried. She cannot really identify why she feels this way, and she finds it nearly impossible to relax. Edwina’s therapist believes her symptoms best represent
a. obsessive-compulsive.
b. generalized anxiety disorder.
c. panic disorder.
d. social anxiety disorder.
e. dissociative identity disorder.
33. The criterion of maladaptive behavior used in determining whether behavior is abnormal would likely to be applied to which of the following cases?
a. Jonathan, who is hearing voices
b. Quincy, who is experiencing some symptoms of depression but is still functioning adequately.
c. Nate, who has developed a drug abuse problem that is affecting his health.
d. Tricia, who behaves in ways other people consider deviant.
e. Leslie, who believes he is hounded by demons.
34. Within the medical model, distinctive patterns of abnormal behavior are described as
a. psychological oddities.
b. biological disorders
c. mental disorders or mental illnesses.
d. diatheses.
e. attributional styles.
35. Health psychology is the study of the interrelationships between ____.
a. drugs and health
b. physical health and mental illness
c. mental illness and drugs
d. psychological factors and physical health
36. Dr. Judah Levine is a health psychologist. Thus, he might do which of the following?
a. Work in a school serving emotionally disturbed students.
b. Research the effects of air pollution on people’s lungs.
c. Consult with a corporation about which desk chairs would be least likely to cause backaches.
d. Help a mayor design a campaign to reduce teen smoking in his city.
37. The stress response is also known as
a. the general adaptation syndrome.
b. the Selye syndrome.
c. the conflict conundrum.
d. posttraumatic stress disorder.
e. burnout.
38. Which of the following is the correct order of stages in the general adaptation syndrome?
a. resistance, alarm, exhaustion
b. alarm, exhaustion, resistance
c. exhaustion, alarm, resistance
d. resistance, exhaustion, alarm
e. alarm, resistance, exhaustion
39. Another name for the resistance stage of the general adaptation syndrome is
a. adaptation.
b. alarm.
c. mobilization.
d. exhaustion.
e. stabilization.
40. Pressures or demands placed on an organism to adjust or adapt to its environment describes
a. stress.
b. sublimation.
c. anxiety.
d. disease.
e. conflict.

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